Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks glands that produce moisture. It is a condition that affects four million people in the U.S., including men and women of all ages. The most common patients are women in their ’40s and ’50s.
As it relates to the eyes, Sjögren’s syndrome targets tear glands, causing those who have it to suffer from extremely dry eyes. Sjögren’s affects each patient differently so, it's important to talk to your doctor about a plan that is right for you in treating your specific symptoms.
What Causes Sjögren’s Syndrome?
The cause of Sjögren’s syndrome is not known. In some cases, it may be inherited, as it has been observed to run in families. Other cases have shown it to stem from Pre-existing, related diseases.
Symptoms of Sjögren’s Syndrome
The classic symptom of Sjögren’s syndrome is extreme dryness of the eyes, mouth, throat, and other areas of the body sustained over prolonged periods of time.
An eye care professional may diagnose Sjögren’s syndrome after observing dryness of the eyes and mouth, and running tests to detect the presence of the condition. One such test is Schirmer’s test, which measures the eye’s ability to wet a slip of paper. Other examinations determine the presence of Sjögren’s syndrome by testing the production of saliva and antibodies, as well as dryness on the surface of the eye.
Symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome that commonly manifest in eyes include:
- Eye dryness
- Eye irritation
- Low tear production
- Feeling of foreign objects in the eye
Sjögren’s Syndrome and Your Eyes: Treatments
As an autoimmune disease with no known cure, Sjögren’s syndrome treatments are generally aimed at helping to relieve symptoms of dryness and discomfort. For the eyes, these treatments include:
- Artificial tears topical eye drops that soothe and comfort dry eyes
- Punctal plugs a more advanced treatment for severe cases, punctal plugs block the function of the punctum, the opening of the tear duct which allows tear drainage.
- Prescription medications to improve or increase tear production
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